The Philippines

Name of scheme


Biodiversity Monitoring System (DENR-BMS)

Biome (terrestrial; freshwater; marine)


Most sites are terrestrial, but there are also some freshwater and marine areas involved


What is monitored


Human resource use and wildlife

Who compiles data


Community members and government rangers

Number of community members involved


350 community members (2001)

Spatial scale. Size of area monitored


A total of 1,090,000 ha, divided on eight areas (2004)


Methods used


Four methods are used. These are: Patrol records, transects, on-the-ground fixed point photography, and village group discussions (community monitoring groups)


Year of initiation


1996 (with scaling up from 1998)

Funded by


The scheme is funded by the Government of the Philippines (Protected Area and Wildlife Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources)

Documents or publications available


Biodiversity and Conservation 9, 1671-1705 (2000); Oryx 37, 407-409 (2003); Oryx 37, 412 (2003);  Biodiversity and Conservation 14, 2507-2542 (2005); Biodiversity and Conservation 14, 2633-2652 (2005); Ambio 36, 566-570 (2007); Science (2007)

A database on management interventions emanating from this scheme is available here at this link.  

Organizers and contact details


Mundita Lim, Director, PAWB-DENR, Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Centre, Quezon Avenue, Diliman, Metro Manila, the Philippines



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